Ref #: B-103-016], The large landslide shown in C. E. Gold’s painting is still visible on the Hutt Road today. For many of them, it would have had a 360 degree impact; concern for the safety of family and friends; damage to homes and possessions; and disruption to shops and businesses affecting both livelihoods, and access to essential goods and services. The documents examined include contemporary diaries, letters and journals, newspaper reports and articles, archives, memoranda and reports of the Wellington Provincial Government as well as later reminiscences, extracts from … It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. 1855 Wairarapa earthquake On 23 January a magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck the lower North Island. January 27 – The Panama Railway becomes the first railroad to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. January 26 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed in the Washington Territory. Wai 23/01/1855 8.2 9 5 1855 Wairarapa earthquake. Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. Akl 23 Jun 1891 5.5- 6.0 Waikato Heads earthquake caused MM5-6 shaking in Auckland Cant 16/11/1901 6.8 1 The first shoreline inland from the present day coast is where the shoreline was in 1855, before the area was uplifted by the Wairarapa earthquake. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake Symposium i PREFACE John Townend, Organising Committee Chair Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington … It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Significant uplift also occurred in Wellington City, most noticeably around Wellington Harbour, altering the city's shoreline considerably. Earthquake-related deaths were caused by building damage (431 deaths, 88%), ground damage (34 deaths, 7%), or other causes (24 deaths, 5%). Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. & Walsh, J.J. (2007). The 1855 Wairarapa earthquakeoccurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Straitarea of New Zealand, including Marlboroughin the South Islandand Wellingtonand Wairarapain the North Island. The raised platforms at Turakirae head mark old shorelines (visible as pale bands). Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Site Quicklinks Culture & Society. The sparsely settled region of the Southern Alps shook for four minutes. Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. This was the first earthquake in New Zealand over magnitude 7 for which written records exist, and the first for which deaths were recorded. The earthquake was followed by many aftershocks, some of which were very damaging. Due to its size, it had a considerable impact on the geography of the region. Wairarapa earthquake, 1855. The 1848 Marlborough earthquake was caused by rupture of the whole of the eastern section of the Awatere Fault. Quetzaltenango, Guatemala 1902 Guatemala earthquake struck on April 18, 1902 at 20:23:50 hrs. Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. Find out more on Te Ara. Attribution 3.0 New Zealand License, Earthquake [7] Reports identify at least another four people (possibly as many as eight) as having died in the surrounding countryside during the earthquake. Wairarapa, Wellington and Hawke's Bay felt the strongest levels of shaking, with much of New Zealand feeling the tremor. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. Seismotectonics is the study of the relationship between the earthquakes, active tectonics and individual faults of a region. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake. Earthquake resistant rebuilding lessened the amount of damage and casualties during the Wairarapa earthquake (8.3) that would hit the same area in 1855. The largest on record – but certainly not the largest ever – was the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake of 1855. Four people were killed and the landscape of the Wellington region was changed significantly. The slip is still visible today along the Hutt Road. The 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake occurred at 10:50 pm NZMT on 9 March. Orpheus shipwreck Happened in 1863 - 189 people died 1886. 7–9 deaths The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand , including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island . The earthquake originated on the Wairarapa Fault and caused extensive faulting and uplift in epicentral areas. Surprisingly there is no comprehensive account other than that of the great British geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, based on information given to … The epicentre was approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) west of Hanmer. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. It caused a devastating tsunami which led to several thousand fatalities. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. Two people died in a fissure in the Manawatū. ", National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Charles Lyell and the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake in New Zealand: Recognition of fault rupture accompanying an earthquake, Terminations of large strike-slip faults: an alternative model from New Zealand, Hope Fault, Jordan Thrust, and uplift of the Seaward Kaikoura Range, New Zealand, "World's largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes", "Massive earthquake hits southern North Island", "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake", Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010, Lyttelton Road Tunnel Administration Building, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011. Ref #: 1/2-003924-G Collection of negatives, prints and albums PAColl-3043], Landslip caused by earthquake near Wellington, New Zealand. The maximum perceived intensity was IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale' possibly reaching X (Extreme). Nearly 200 historical accounts have been examined and analysed in order to determine the effects of the magnitude 8+ 1855 Wairarapa, New Zealand, earthquake. It is a dextral strike-slip fault with a component of uplift to the northwest as expressed by the Rimutaka Range. [GNS Science], Lambton Quay, Wellington, looking south from Brandon's Corner 1860. In 1855 an earthquake (The "1855 Wairarapa earthquake") struck the area, raising the coastline and creating flat land for settlement in and around the harbour. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake, with death toll estimated to be between 240,000 to 655,000, is believed to be the largest earthquake of the 20th century by death toll. The first incident, being a death due to the collapse of a chimney, was reported by multiple sources and is … Cause: Earthquake in Wairarapa; The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. 7–9 deaths. NT 11/12/2012 7.1 Banda Sea earthquake, felt in Darwin New Zealand MBo 16/10/1848 7.8 3 1848 Marlborough earthquake on dextral Awatere Fault. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. The 1855 earthquake is the most severe earthquake to have occurred in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 metres. In early 1855 there was an earthquake in the centre of Cook Strait, thought to be of a magnitude of about 8.1-8.2, the largest in human memory. The violent shake was felt as far away as Canterbury. The largest earthquake recorded in New Zealand occurred in 1855, when Wairarapa to the east of Wellington was struck by a Magnitude 8.2. At 11.16 pm a small … Today, Wellington's Basin Reserve sports ground sits on land lifted by this earthquake; the area had previously been part of a waterway that led into the harbour. The latter was most dramatic at Muka Muka, on the western side of Palliser Bay, where the ground was raised by 2.7m. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. A horizontal displacement of up to 18 metres (59 ft) was accompanied by uplift and tilting of the Rimutaka Range on the northwestern side of the fault with vertical offsets of about 6 metres near the fault reducing to almost nothing on the western coast of the Wellington Peninsula. Although the later Murchison and Napier earthquakes claimed more lives, neither created the geological upheaval wrought by the Wairarapa earthquake of 1855." A trend in reported estimates therefore doesn't necessarily reflect the true change over time. The evening of 23 January 1855 was the end of a two-day holiday, the 15th anniversary of Wellington’s founding. "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake". Damage to at least 95 unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings resulted in 272 deaths, and damage to five reinforced concrete (RC) buildings resulted in 145 deaths. Hawke’s Bay (7.8 and 7.3): At least 256 people died in the first earthquake (161 in Napier, 93 in Hastings and two in Wairoa), making it New Zealand’s deadliest earthquake. 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … New Zealand lies along the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. 1855 The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a … It was centred in the Wairarapa, but once again it was Wellington that experienced the most damage. It killed between five and nine people in Wellington, Manawatū and Wairarapa and radically altered the landscape of the Wellington region. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake in February 2011. ↑ "Where were New Zealand's largest earthquakes?". The 1861 Sumatra earthquake occurred on February 16 and was the last in a sequences of earthquakes that ruptured adjacent parts of the Sumatran segment of the Sunda megathrust. [3] A group of dextral strike-slip structures, known as the Marlborough Fault System, transfer displacement between the mainly transform and convergent type plate boundaries in a complex zone at the northern end of the South Island. [GNS Science]. The shaking also created numerous slump cracks in flat areas of Wellington, the Hutt Valley, Wairarapa, and in the Manawatu district. Find out more on Te Ara. The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. The region had already experienced several large earthquakes, the very large 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake, and the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake in the Northern Wairarapa. Rodney Grapes and Gaye Downes . Land was reclaimed to form what is now the central city. [4] The earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the NIFS. The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 metres. Forward elastic dislocation modelling shows that movement on a steeply dipping Wairarapa fault alone cannot account for the recorded deformation data. Apr 19, 1902. In these areas the earthquake also triggered sandblows and the eruption of groundwater at the surface, the result of massive pressure increases underground that were caused by the shaking. It has been suggested that this was caused by the rupture propagating down to where the fault links through to the top of the subducting Pacific Plate. Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … It had a maximum perceived intensity of VII (severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. The earthquake measured 8.2 on the Richter scale and was centred in the south-west Wairarapa along the Wairarapa Fault, about 25 kilometres from Wellington. The largest earthquake that has been measured on a seismograph reached 9.5 magnitude, occurring on 22 May 1960. In 1855 an earthquake (The "1855 Wairarapa earthquake") struck the area, raising the coastline and creating flat land for settlement in and around the harbour. There is strong evidence that the earthquake generated a local tsunami and it is also possible that small tsunami accompanied some aftershocks. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. [2]. Most of the fault system consists of dextral strike-slip faults, although towards its northeastern end the trend swings to more S-N trend and the faults become mainly oblique normal in sense as the zone intersects with the Taupo rift zone. The quake, estimated at magnitude 8.2, raises parts of the Wellington harbour foreshore by as much as 6 … The Wairau Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. Astoundingly, this moved the … 23 January 1855. There was one death in Wellington, on 24 June. [1] This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. For example, between five and ten people were reported to have been killed in the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake in four separate incidents (Grapes and Downes, 1997). Earthquake-related deaths were caused by building damage (431 deaths, 88%), ground damage (34 deaths, 7%), or other causes (24 deaths, 5%). [10] New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research created an animated tsunami simulation model based on the 1855 Wairarapa event, which was screened on the television tele-drama "Aftershock". Deaths occurred during aftershock. GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. 1863 HMS Orpheus shipwreck It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. To the west of the Tararua Ranges are the Manawatu coastal plains. The earthquake was felt as far away as the Malay peninsula and the eastern part of Java. Growth slowed from the 1930s. Intensity of the earthquake. The estimated magnitude of about 8.2 is unusually large for an earthquake associated with movement on a mainly strike-slip fault, and the coseismic offset would have been the largest known for such an event. The 1855 Bursa earthquake occurred on 28 February, with an estimated magnitude of 7.02±0.64 M w A devastating precursor quake that took place in Kemalpaşa, a town of Bursa, Turkey caused severe destruction all over Bursa and other neighboring cities. 1.1 billion $ damage MM VIII in the Newcastle area. Despite the violence of the 1855 earthquake (with an estimated strength of 8.0-8.2 on the Richter scale), there were few fatalities. Daytime earthquakes were more deadly than nighttime earthquakes, and mortality rates … Much of modern Wellington's central business district is formed from land raised from the harbour by the event, as shown by the series of "Shoreline 1840" plaques. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. Some small shakes were recorded in the region but it was not until 1904 that another moderately large earthquake occurred. Wairarapa settlers were always alert to the dangers of earthquake. Between 7 and 9 people were killed in the earthquake, and 5 others sustained injuries that required hospitalisation. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake was a significant event in the lives of the people affected. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake was a significant event in the lives of the people affected. Retrieved 22 November 2016. Tremors continued almost continuously until midnight and sporadic strong aftershocks were felt for several days. "Initial results show that one of these landslides in particular occurred recently, and may have been caused by the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake in 1855." The shock was felt across almost the whole country, and was highly destructive in Wellington (MM 10), and severely damaging in Whanganui and Kaikoura. The region had already experienced several large earthquakes, the very large 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake, and the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake in the Northern Wairarapa.. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake . For many of them, it would have had a 360 degree impact; concern for the safety of family and friends; damage to homes and possessions; and disruption to shops and businesses affecting both livelihoods, and access to essential goods and services. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. The Awatere Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. GeoNet content is copyright GNS Science and is Rapid residential development took place from the 1880s into the 1920s, spurred by commercial and industrial growth and improved access. [11]. In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. Retrieved 22 November 2016. Mouslopoulou, V., Nicol, A., Little, T.A. Intensity of the earthquake. The 1934 Pahiatua earthquake struck at 11:46 pm on 5 March, causing severe damage in much of the lower North Island. This information can then be used to quantify the seismic hazard of an area. The ground level at Pauatahanui, Lowry Bay, and to the east of Lake Wairarapa was also raised, but it is possible that this was caused by material being deposited, rather than tectonic uplift. The sole casualty in Wellington was Baron von Alzdorf, who died when a brick chimney in his hotel collapsed. The 1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake was a devastating magnitude 7.5 Mw earthquake that struck near the town of Waipukurau on 23 February 1863. Land was reclaimed to form what is now the central city. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Casualties. During the great Wairarapa earthquake of 1855, Charles was caught in the Hutt Valley at a friend’s house, which fell down around their ears. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). GNS Science. During the great Wairarapa earthquake of 1855, Charles was caught in the Hutt Valley at a friend’s house, which fell down around their ears. The 1855 earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the North Island Fault System. 23 January 1855. Felt over 200,000 km2 . The earthquake was one of the main reasons why houses in Wellington were mostly rebuilt in timber rather than brick. It has been suggested that the surface rupture formed by this event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults. Researchers study the effects of the 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake to find clues about what may happen next time. GNS Science. Commission and GNS Science. Attribution 3.0 New Zealand License. The agricultural industries, including forestry, cropping, sheep, beef and dairy farming, are major land users. Magnitude: 7.5 Death Toll: N/A Shaking continued for two minutes in Wellington and caused massive widespread damage. ↑ "Earthquakes". Many Wellington buildings were damaged, slips occurred in the Hutt Valley and a tsunami in the Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour flooded buildings near the shoreline. The largest recorded earthquake to have hit New Zealand rocked Wellington and the Wairarapa at 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855. The epicentre is estimated to have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui towards Taihape. Economy Edit. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. Story: Historic earthquakes — Te Ara "In Māori tradition Rūaumoko, god of earthquakes, caused rumblings and shaking as he walked about, and European arrivals soon experienced the frightening power of the land they hoped to settle. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. Originally reported as magnitude 6.6 on the Richter Scale, the earthquake was later downgraded to a magnitude of 6.2. Casualties. Read more. The first large earthquake that they had felt had taken place on 16 October 1… In the Wairarapa, several Māori (their reported number varies from two to six), were killed when a wharecollapsed. The earthquake was associated with the rupturing of approximately 150 km (93 mi) of the Wairarapa Fault. [Denton, Frank J, 1869-1963. 7–9 deaths. It … [Gold, Charles Emilius 1809-1871. They include the Wairarapa Fault and Wellington Fault to the southwest, the Ruahine and Mohaka Faults in the central section and the Waimana, Waiotahi, Whakatane and Waiohau Faults to the northeast. "Initial results show that one of these landslides in particular occurred recently, and may have been caused by the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake in 1855." Newcastle earthquake. Intensity of the earthquake. The rupture area for the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake is similar to that estimated for the 1861 event. In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. Apr 19, 1902. 1855 Wairarapa New Zealand; Date: January 23, 1855 () Magnitude: 8.2: Depth: 33 km: Epicenter location: Wairarapa North Island: Countries or regions affected: New Zealand: Casualties: 5-9 deaths Intensity of the earthquake. [6]. In the North Island the displacement is mainly taken up along the Kermadec subduction zone, although the remaining dextral strike-slip component of the relative plate motion is accommodated by the North Island Fault System (NIFS). The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a depth of 9 km (5.6 mi). In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. Deaths from earthquakes includes direct deaths from the event plus those from secondary impacts (such as a tsunami triggered by an earthquake). In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings, and a 36-hour fire in central Napier which gutted almost 11 blocks. The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake Symposium — Proceedings Volume Published by Greater Wellington Regional Council Greater Wellington Publication Number: GW/RINV-T-05/205 ISBN: 0-909016-87-9 September 2005 . The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The eastern part of South Island, New Zealand occurred in Wellington on... To quantify the seismic hazard of an earlier shock which was as great. to several fatalities... 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