Fatty acid composition of palm oil and palm kernel oil. Palm kernel oil (or in moderate climate, palm kernel fat) solidifies between 20 and 24°C and is highly saturated (Fig. Palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats; these oils give the name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid that they contain. Another stearin, produced from a second fractionation of the olein, is called palm mid-fraction (Figure 3.2). A more detailed profile of the TAGs is seen in Table 3.3. The low level of linoleic acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make the oil relatively stable to oxidative deterioration. 4.101) with an iodine value of 13–23. Moisture,Impurities, Unsap (%) 2 Max. PKO – Palm Kernel Oil Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Wiley, 2005 98 Min. Advances in crystalliser designs, cooling programs and filtration technology have enabled a wider range of stearins to be produced. PO – Palm Oil The olein contains higher levels of oleic (39–45%) and linoleic acids (10–13%) compared to the palm oil. A comparison was made with high quality oil from Malaysia. Fats melting sharply just below mouth temperature leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible for any of the common non-lauric oils to match. Other crystallisation inducers are diacylglycerols such as dipalmitoylglycerol. Analysis of the 2-position of the TAGs by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis reveals the fatty acids at this position to be mainly unsaturated (oleic). Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. Researchers are only on the cusp of understanding how fatty acids work independently and in conjunction with other nutrients to impact our health. Palm oil, a semi-solid at ambient temperature (25–30°C), may be fractionated into a liquid fraction (olein) and a more solid fraction (stearin). R Tambun, D G Ferani, A Afrina, J A A Tambun, I A A Tarigan. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, U.K. Ang, Catharina Y. W., KeShun Liu, and Yao-Wen Huang, eds. The kernel oil is characterised by its high level of shorter and medium fatty acid chain lengths (C6–C14). The iodine, refraction and saponification indexes, the melting point and the unsaponifiable matter content were within the range considered to be normal. It contains 40% oleic acid (monounsaturated fatty acid), 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid), 45% palmitic acid and 5% stearic acid (saturated fatty acid). palm oil in deep-fat frying methods has already been established [15]. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. [1] It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut.[2]. Every fat and oil possesses a natural FA distribution among the glycerides, which affects a product’s consistency as either a solid or a liquid. Palm oil has a balanced ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Because of their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to oxidation. Available data suggests that 100 g of palm kernel oil contains: 11.4% of monounsaturated fat, 1.6% of polyunsaturated fat, and 81.5% of saturated fat out of a total lipid of 100 g. The amount of trans fat is not available. Pine Oil, Etc. The same oil palm tree therefore produces 2 different types of oil with different properties and fatty acid compositions, but with the same botanical origin. Palmitic acid, C16 (44–45%) and oleic acid, C18:1 (39–40%) are the major component acids along with linoleic acid, C18:2 (10–11%) and only a trace amount of linolenic acid, C18:3. Hallenstvedt E(1), Kjos NP, Rehnberg AC, Overland M, Thomassen M. Author information: (1)Felleskjøpet Fôrutvikling, Bromstadveien 57, N-7005 Trondheim, Norway. 4. 3. The ratio of POP/POO influences the crystallisation of palm oil as shown in Table 3.5. Coconut oil is the highest natural source of lauric acid. The fatty acid chains present in the palm oil triglycerides could vary in the number of carbons present in the chain (chain length) and in structure (presence of double bonds, i.e., unsaturation). A higher concentration of diacylglycerols is found in more unsaturated oleins. Palmitic acid (44%-45%) and oleic acid (39%-40%) are the major component acids, with linoleic acid (10%-11%) and only a … Composition and Properties The major fatty acids in palm kernel oil are about 48% lauric acid (C12), 16% myristic acid (C14) and 15% oleic acid (C18:1). The quality of the oil is excellent, with free fatty acids of the crude oil generally below 2%. Consequently, the improvement of palm oil quality for a higher degree of fatty acid unsaturation is one of the goals of oil palm breeders. Oil from the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West African countries. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil … It is obtained as a condensate of volatile matters carried over from the deodorizer by the action of the stripping steam. It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut. Vegetable Oil in Food Technology, Blackwell Publishing, 2012 The split-off fatty acids are a mixture ranging from C4 to C18, depending on the type of oil or fat. Palm oil contains approximately 44% palmitic acid (saturated), 5% stearic acid (saturated), 39% oleic acid (monounsaturated), and 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated). Iodine Value (% I2absorbed) 22 Max. Fatty acid distillation Concentration Refine Glycerin 99.7% USP C8–C10 Acid Fatty Acid Crude Glycerin C12-C18 Acid WATER First Step: Vegetable oil will be hydrolyzed into Fatty acids and Glycerin PKO = Palm Kernel Oil Products of iodine value around 33–35, previously only available through solvent fractionation, can now be produced from dry fractionation processes. Its fatty acid breakdown is 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% monounsaturated fatty acids and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This composition results in an edible oil that is suitable for use in a variety of food applications. The higher the iodine and saponification value, hence the higher the fatty acid composition can be found for higher extraction for oleochemical plant. A wide range of fractions with different properties to suit requirements of the food industry is available through dry fractionation. Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol.Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name.Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. The use of high-pressure membrane filtration has helped to improve the quality of palm mid-fractions. "British Colonial Policies And The Oil Palm Industry In The Niger Delta Region Of Bayelsa, Nigeria, 1900–1960", "Table 01: Major Vegetable Oils: World Supply and Distribution (Commodity View)", Development of Palm Oil and Related Products in Malaysia and Indonesia, "Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men", "What are the benefits of palm kernel oil? Oleic and linoleic acids from PKO goes into the liquid fraction (PKL) during fractionation while the more saturated fatty acids (lauric and myristic acids) go to the solid fraction (PKS). Indonesia and Malaysia. Palm olein remains clear at ambient temperature of 25°C. The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). Abstract. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: rondang@usu.ac.id. It does not contain any cholesterol. [8] However, the raise in total cholesterol concentration is partly due to more HDL-C than LDL-C.[9] Palm kernel oil does not contain cholesterol or trans fatty acids. Palm Oil : Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS Press, 2012 Palm Oil Commercial Specification and Quality, Follow Oil Palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com. Palm oil is unique among vegetable oils in having a significant amount of saturated acids (10–15%) at the 2-position of its TAGs. The fatty acid composition of the blends shows that, although palm kernel oil has a higher saturated fatty acid level (about 82%), the long chain saturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) are only 11% of the total fatty acids, whereas in palm oil these percentages exceed 47%. TAGs can be further divided into four component categories: trisaturated (SSS) TAGs, disaturated-monounsaturated (SSU) TAGs, monosaturated-diunsaturated (SUU) TAGs, and triunsaturated (UUU). Fatty Acid Composition of Palm Oil, Palm Oil Fractions and Palm Kernel Oil. Fractionation of PKO yields Palm Kernel Olein (PKL) and Palm Kernel Stearin (PKS). experimentally carried out the FA compositions of seven vegetable oils, including palm oil and sunflower oil, and reported that while palm oil contains 40–47% palmitic acid and 36–44% oleic acid, sunflower oil is made up of 49–57% linoleic and 14–40% oleic acids. ANATOMY OF OIL PALM FRUIT. [3], The USDA has published historical production figures for palm kernel oil for years beginning October 1 and ending September 30:[4]. CB – Cocoa Butter Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillate or commonly known as PKFAD, is a processing residue from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) refineries with a high amount of free fatty acids. 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