Of the primary schools 561 were of the lower grade and 65 were of the higher grade; of the latter, 34 were public and 31 were private. It lay on the waterways between the black sea and the Aegean Sea. [11], Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. "Among the masterpieces destroyed, writes Talbot, "were a Herakles attributed to the fourth-century B.C. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis ("city of Constantine", Constantinople) after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital officially as Nova Roma (Νέα Ῥώμη) 'New Rome'. By the next day the Doge and the leading Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the city was given over to pillage for three days. 7 Constantine 2. But the Frenchmen and Flemings were filled with a lust for destruction. It had no praetors, tribunes, or quaestors. In the 1880s, Matteos Mamurian invited Srpouhi Dussap to submit essays for Arevelian Mamal. When the Roman Empire was divided into two, the city of Constantinople remained as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. It would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek-speaking empire for over a thousand years. Nuns were ravished in their convents. The name "Constantinople" is still used by members of the Eastern Orthodox Church in the title of one of their most important leaders, the Orthodox patriarch based in the city, referred to as "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch." He came out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. [18][19] The name appears to have been quickly forgotten and abandoned, and the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453,[11] whereafter it replaced Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.[12]. The palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main Imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus going into decline. "[42] Hagia Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000 pounds of gold to build. With the stabilization of the Empire brought by Leo III (717–741), who foiled an Arab siege on Constantinople… Particular examples include St Mark's Basilica in Venice,[87] the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. The popular name Constantinople or ‘City of Constantine’ soon replaced the emperor’s own official choice of … The origins of the name of Byzantion, more commonly known by the later Latin Byzantium, are not entirely clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. On 25 July 1197, Constantinople was struck by a severe fire which burned the Latin Quarter and the area around the Gate of the Droungarios (Turkish: Odun Kapısı) on the Golden Horn. In the Dark Agesage, few cities shine like Constantinople. Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" ["The names of Istanbul"]. Each guild had its own monopoly, and tradesmen might not belong to more than one. This is a popular venue for horse racing when the Byzantine Empire was around. [29] This treaty would pay dividends retrospectively as Byzantium would maintain this independent status, and prosper under peace and stability in the Pax Romana, for nearly three centuries until the late 2nd century AD.[30]. [26] Apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement. Interested in this ancient city’s history? Byzantine Empire Map Byzantine Art Historical Architecture Historical Maps Sack Of Constantinople Varangian Guard Medieval Drawings Greek Sea Fantasy City. In Hagia Sophia itself, drunken soldiers could be seen tearing down the silken hangings and pulling the great silver iconostasis to pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under foot. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Already then, in Greek and early Roman times, Byzantium was famous for its strategic geographic position that made it difficult to besiege and capture, and its position at the crossroads of the Asiatic-European trade route over land and as the gateway between the Mediterranean and Black Seas made it too valuable a settlement to abandon, as Emperor Septimius Severus later realized when he razed the city to the ground for supporting Pescennius Niger's claimancy. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the imperial courts, and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. When the western portion of the Roman Empire disintegrated in the fifth century (see The Fall of Rome) Western Europe was propelled into the Dark Ages. This was the great cathedral of the city, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. The Emperor Constantine was regarded as an ancestor by the Byzantines.He was infact a ruler of Roman Empire. [79] The Ottomans were commanded by 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. All the emperors up to Zeno and Basiliscus were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus accepted them. Margaret Barker, Times Literary Supplement 4 May 2007, p. 26. After the barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire, Constantinople became the indisputable capital city of the Roman Empire. Woman ( Elpis Kesaratsian ) such as metalwork, ivory, and cost 20,000 pounds of gold silver! The emperor’s own official choice of … Byzantine Empire ( Washington D. C.: the Dark Agesage, few shine. 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